Andersons of Colonial N. Carolina

meant what they said, said what they meant

TTT Foltera Fort

with 12 comments

Foltera Fort notes

“A curiously persistant rumor of the early years at Jamestown was that a plantation or factory of Europeans–some identified them as Spaniards–were resident among the Tuscarora, possibly at the town of Ocamawahan (or Oconohowan) near the Roanoke River fall line.9  pg. 310, “Tuscarora Ascendancy” by Dr. Thomas Parramore

“They [Tuscarora] had doubtless long been participants in the busy commerce of the Occoneechee Trading Path, which skirted their territory on the west.14   A Tuscarora route known as Weecacana Path ran from the Occoneechee Path to the Chowan River, and other trails radiated out toward neighboring peoples.15  pg 311, Parramore


Most historians seem to have overlooked the Occoneechee Neck (modern Weldon) area as a trading center… note this article by Boyce:EXAMINATION OF INDIANS, 4 I713( ?).

“By the late seventeenth century Virginia traders were still trying to compete with South Carolina for the southwestern trade with the Cherokees and Catawbas, and these seven or eight Tuscarora villages must have been able to capture the middleman position in the flow of goods south of the James River to nearby North Carolina Indians. To go a step farther an undated memorial (probably 1718) sent by the Virginia Indian Company to Governor Spotswood attests that between 1709 and 1711 there had “been no Trade carried on from hence with any forreign Indians, the Tuscaruros only excepted.”26 This idea is not new. Several statements of Lawson’s are often cited to show that the Tuscaroras monopolized trade before 1711.27 It has always been assumes that the entire Tuscarora Nation, league, confederacy, or whatever held this position. But we now see that it was clearly a limited number of villages.

This commerce was conducted using not the well-known Occaneechi “trading path”, but a path parallel to or east of the fall line (see map). perhaps the same route Lewis Binford has suggested for Bland’s trip to the Tuscaroras in 1650.28 In December 1711 the Saponi and Occaneechi, apparently hoping to gain some control of this trade while the Tuscarora were concerned with the war, asked the Virginia government for a piece of land “on the Northside of Meherine River above the Tuscarora trading path.” A year and a half later, in 1713, one of the refugee Tuscarora villages which fled to Virginia expressed a desire to be placed “on Roanoke River near the trading path called Weccacana.”29.” … “The limited demographic data suggest that in 1710 there were fifteen Tuscarora villages with an average population of three hundred to five hundred per village.30” pg 37-38, Four Centuries of Southern Indians. edited by Charles M. Hudson, Did a Tuscarora Confederacy Exist? Douglas W. Boyce



On what terms do vou desire to be at peace with us. We are sent by the Town to hear wvhat the Gov’r says or has to propose & upon their return, their Great men will come in to conclude. Sev’ll of them have been here already, and made Treatys but never perform’d them, therefore they must now tell what they will do & ye Gov’r will let them know whether he thinks it reasonable. Whatever the Gover’r pleases to pro-pose for settling a peace they are willing to submnitt to. They are now settled within ye Gov’t of Virginia -are they willing to continue in the Governm’t, & on what terms do they desire peace. They desire to be on Roanoke River near the trading path called Weecacana, but had rather ye Gov’r would appoint them a place for their settlement. Do they desire to live in ye same manner as our Tribu-tarys do, and what do they mean by this proposal. They can not answer it without consulting their Town -they may tell lyes and their people may be offended with them & not stand to their offers. Why do they rather desire to live here than to return to their old Settlem’ts in North Carolina. They can’t say till they know it from their people, but they don’t know whether all their people would be willing to return to Carolina, and what they proposed ab’t their Settlem’t is of their own heads & not by order of their people. pg 274, 


Miscellaneous Colonial Documents (Continued) Source: The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, Vol. 19, No. 3 (Jul., 1911), pp. 263- 275 Published by: Virginia Historical Society

(See “3 letters” footnote for more on Weecacana)


“The earliest exploration, of which we have a record, by white men into this section of Virginia, was by members of Edward Bland’s and Captain (later, General) Abraham Wood’s party.  The purpose was presumably to contact the Tuscarora Indians in Carolina in order to establish trade relations.  Wood had come to Virginia about 1620 at the age of ten, as an indentured servant.  He was a factor and explorer rather than a planter, and soon had caravans making periodic visits southward.  He was the foremost explorer of British America, often being compared to La Salle.  In 1644 he was given command of Fort Henry (the present Petersburg) where he lived.  He and Edward Bland, an English merchant, who came to Virginia in 1643, left Fort Henry August 27, 1650, on horseback and travelled about a hundred miles between the James and Roanoke Rivers, crossing the Meherrin River, it is thought, near the present site of Emporia, and ending somewhere near Roanoke Rapids, North Carolina.  Becoming aware that they were being viewed with suspicion by the Indians, the party retraced its journey and arrived safely at Fort Henry.”   Sketches of Greensville County, Virginia, 1650-1967 pg 42

1710 or so…

“In the meantime Robert Hicks was not indifferent to other aspects of

life. When leave had been given for taking up land on the south side of

Blackwater Swamp in 1705, he and Robert Bolling were among the first to

patent together) four hundred acres at the mouth of Stony Creek. Hicks

soon transferred his share to Lewis Green. Then on April 20, 1709, he

made a purchase of two tracts of land, totaling 1,280 acres, that was to

have a bearing on all his subsequent history. Both tracts were on the

north side of Meherrin River and one was the site of what would later be

known as Hicks’ Ford. The land had originally been patented in 1706 by

Arthur Kavanaugh “of Meherrin River” who lived in Surry County but

“pretending to be of North Carolina” when he ran into some trouble with

the Virginia authorities the year before he sold to Hicks. He was

accused of purposely creating misunderstanding between the Sapony

Indians and the English, signing papers in the name of “Gentlemen of

Note in these parts.” His conduct was ordered investigated. If found

guilty Kavanaugh was to he taken into custody until he gave bond for his

good behavior We do not know the result of the investigation but he

seems to have led an orderly life thereafter. He became a close neighbor

of Hicks at Hicks’ Ford.

It is quite probable that Robert Hicks moved from Petersburg to the

Ford in 1709, or shortly afterward. Certainly he was here before 1711.

It is also most likely that he established a trading post about the same

time, though this is conjecture. Tradition persists that there was a

Post (or “Quarter”) at the Ford. The location was a strategic one –

about half way between Fort Henry and the numerous Tuscarora towns in

eastern North Carolina. It would also have been in close proximity to

the Meherrin fort (town) and in the midst of a large Indian population.

Hicks’ experience as a trader makes him the logical one to have

established and operated such a Post.”     Historical and Biographical Sketches of Greensville County, Virginia 1650-1967.” Second Ed. 1968-2000. The Riparian Woman’s Club, Emporia, VA, 2000

Chapter II,   “That Honest Man, Captain Hicks”

Chowan Co., NC DB 1 P. 87

Arthur Kavanaugh of Meherrin River is held and firmly bound unto Robert

Hicks of Prince George Co. 11 Apr 1709 in the sum of 96 pds. Sterling a

mortgag of 1280 A. Wit: Jacob Collcon, John Evary. Reg. (not given)

Below is my redrawing (excerpt) of a hand drawn map by Margaret Hofmann which she produced in 1979… it can be referred to in an article in the North Carolina Genealogical Society Journal, May 94, entitled “James Logan Colbert of the Chickasaws: The Man And The Myth”.  My intent is not to plagiarize her work but to expand a bit upon it.  Anyone doing a copy/paste should beware that if I am called to task for copyright the rendition will be deleted.

Note the rocky, shallow area….  a ford?

For further reference I have included a map of my own which I call the Trader’s Map 1715.  The reference to Foltera Fort can be found near Weldon, NC… historically called Plumtree Island.  I’ll include a transcript of a deed defining its location.

Jos.. Calvert
Jno. Gray
North Carolina, Bertie precinct } fe? (se?)—
To all Christian people to whom these presents shall come I Joseph Calvert of ye province & prect. aforesd. in the name of God everlasting send Greeting. Know ye that I ye sd. Joseph Calvert for Kin (?) Consideration of the sum of Twelve pounds to me in hand paid by John Gray in ye Provence & prect aforesd. the Receipt whereof I do hereby acknowledge & for divers other good causes & Considerations
we (me?) mov*ing, Have bargained sold aliened Enfeofed & Confirmed & do by these presents bargain Sell aliened Enfeoff & Confirm unto the sd John Gray his Hiers & asigns forever a plantation & Tract of Land containing two Hundred & fifty acres be ye same more or Less lying in Bertie prect on the south side of Morattuck River in Plumtree Island Beginning at a Sassafras William Greens line near ye Foltera Fort yn. along Greens line So. 5 wt. 230 pole to a hickory one of his line trees then so. 85 Et. 440 pole to an Ash in ye River yn up ye River 60 pole to an Elm on the riverside yn No. 85 wt. across the meadow to a Hickory on ye Meadow side yn up ye sevrall courses of ye meadow & low grounds to ye first station, To ye use & behoof of him ye sd John Gray his Heirs & Asigns forever,  Together with all ye right priviledges & Imparteties unto ye same belonging or in any way appertaining To Have & to hold ye sd Tract of land unto ye sd  John Gray his Heirs & assigns forever and I ye sd Joseph Calvert my Heirs Ext(?) & Admrs. do covenant promis & agree to & with ye sd John Gray his Heirs & assigns by these presents that he ye sd  John Gray his Heirs Exrs. & assigns shall & may peaceably & quietly have hold occupie possess & enjoy ye sd Tract of Land & all ye rights priviledges & immunities forever without ye lett suit suit (sic) Trouble Eviction or Molistation of or from me ye sd Joseph Calvert my Heirs Exs. or Admrs… or of or from any other person or persons claiming by or under me or them or any or either of them
pg 365
K*t? ye sd Joseph Calvert do for myelf my Heirs Exrs. & Admrs  ***? ****? covenant promise & agree, to & with ye sd John Gray his Heirs Exrs. & asignss by these presents that I ye sd Joseph Calvert my Heirs Exrs. & Admrs. shall & will at all times hereafter at ye special Instance & Request of ye sd John Gray his Heirs & assigns ye sd Tract of Land warrant & defend against all or any person or persons claiming any right title or Interest or any part or parcel there of & will at all or any time or times do all such futher or other act or — acts thing or things for Confirming &? making since ye sd  Tract of Land unto unto (sic) ye sd John Gray his Heirs & assigns as shall be thought adviseable & necessary,  In witness whereof I have hereunto sett my hand & seal this 24th day of June in the Tenth year of ye Reign of our Soverign Lord George of Great Brittain ffrance & Ireland King  wt? Anno? &? Domini? 1724 Joseph Calvert &? a Seal, Signed Sealed & Delivered in ye psence of us Wm. Gray  Thomas T (his mark) Witmell, Bertie prect. se? February Court 1724  The above Deed of Sale was in due form of Law in open Court proved by the oath of Wm. Gray one of the evidences thereto & Ordered to be Registered & is
J?p  J?no Suttan  Dept Cl Cur
(Transcribed from microfilm copy by Marc Anderson 2010)
Foltera Fort was located next to William Green’s property. I propose it was the focal Indian Trading Post below the rocky rapids of the Roanoke River and the principal point where trade made wealth for the merchants of Cashy River.
A bit about the John Gray mentioned in the above deed….

William Grayby John Gillam
The Chronical of the Bertie County Historical Society vol IX, # 2. October 1960. Used by permission of Harry Thompson
In the year 1713 there came to the province of North Carolina (Bertie County), as a surveyor, a young many by the name of John Gray. John Gray, a native of Scotland, born in 1690, married Ann Bryan of Nansmond County, VA, and to this union were born several children. William Gray, a man of many interest, was probably the most prominent of these children.

William Gray was born June 17, 1730. Early in life he was married to Frances Lee, daughter of Stevens Lee and Elizabeth West Lee. Fourteen children were born to this union.


William Gray was a man of manh interests. He was a large land owner, as the referenc ein his will to “any one of my plantations” would indicate. He was a merchant, ship builder, and since his name appears among those attending the Hillsboro Convention in 1775, and since he was also a delegate to the Halifax Convention which met to draw up the State Constitution, and also a member of the Assembly which decided to build Tryon’s Palace, he must have been interested in politics.

He had a Ship Yard on a high bluff on the Cashie River where much commerce was carried on by boat. He was a large slave owner. Among his buisness interestes was a grist mill, located near the present site of Coulbourn Lumber Co. Gray’s Landing was at or about the location of the present depot of the Carolina Southern Railway Company in the town of Windsor.

Note that the William Gray, son of John Gray was born (according to the above account) 1730.

Who was the William Gray who witnessed the Calvert/Gray deed above?  And who is the below referenced William Gray?

(according to Hathaway’s “Misc” notes they are brothers….

Snowfield, in Bertie county, contained, in 1724, 640 acres of land situated at the head of Little Rocqnist Creek, it was occupied then by William Gray (brother of John) as lessee, having been leased to him for seven years by William Maule, 100 acres of the 640, being the quantity leased. Later a suit was brought vs. Wm. Marshall by Win. Maule and Xeedham Bryan was notified to look after his interest if he had any….. he didn’t give a source)


Minutes of the North Carolina Governor’s Council

North Carolina. Council

October 27, 1726 – October 28, 1726

Volume 02, Pages 641-645



This day was read at the Board the Petition of the Meherrin Indians shewing that they have lived and Peaceably Enjoyed the said Towne where they now live for such a space of time as they humbly concieve

——————– page 643 ——————– Entitles them to an Equitable Right in the same that they have not only lived there for many years but long before there were any English Settlements near that place or any notion of Disputes known to them concerning the dividing bounds between this Country and Verginia and have there made large improvements after their manner for the better support and maintanance of themselves and Families by their Lawfull and Peaceable Industry Notwithstanding which Coll Wm Maule and Mr William Gray have lately intruded upon them and have Surveyed their sd Towne and cleared Grounds on pretence that it lye in this Government and that the sd Indians have allways held it as Tributaries to Verginia which is not so praying this Board to take them into their Protection as their faithful and Loyall Tributaries and to secure to them a Right & Property in the said Towne with such a convenient Quantity of Land adjoyning to it to to be laid off by meets and Bounds as to them shall seem meet

Then allso was Read the Petitions of Sundry Inhabitants Living near the said Indians Shewing That Sundry Familys of the Indians called the Meherrin Indians have lately Encroacht and settled on their Land which they begg leave to Represent with the true accot of those Indians who are not original Inhabitants of any Lands within this Governmt but were formerly called Susquahannahs and Lived between Mary Land and Pensilvania and committing several Barbarous Massacrees and Outrages there Killing, as tis reported all the English there settled excepting Two Families, they then drew off and fled up to the head of Potomack and there built them a fort being pursued by the Mary Land and Verginia Forces under the Comand of One Major Trueman who beseiged the fort Eight months but at last in the night broke out thro the main Guard and drew off round the heads of several Rivers and passing them high up came into this country and settled at old Sapponie Town upon Maherrin River near where Arthurs Cavenah now lives but being disturbed by the sapponie Indians they drew down to Tarrora Creek on the same River where Mr Arthur Allen’s Quarters is; afterwards they were drove thence by the Jennetto Indians down to Bennets Creek and settled on a Neck of Land afterwards Called Maherrin Neck because these Indians came down Maherrin River and after that they began to take the name of Maherrin Indians; but being known the English on that side would not suffer them to live there, then they removed over Chowan River and Settled at Mount Pleasant where Capt Downing now live but being very Troublesome there one Lewis Williams drove them higher up and got an order from the Governmt that they should never come on the So. side of Wickkacones

——————– page 644 ——————– Creek and they settled at Catherines Creek a place since called Little Towne but they being still Mischievous by order of the Government Coll Pollock brought in the Chief of them before the Govr & Council and they were then ordered by the Governmt never to appear on the south side of Maherrin They then pitched at the mouth of Maherrin River or the North side called old Maherrin Town where they afterwards remained tho they were never recieved or became Tributaries of this Governmt nor ever assisted the English in their warrs against the Indians but were on the contrary very much suspected to have assisted the Tuskarooroes at the massacree The Baron De Graffen Reed offering his Oath that one Nick Major in Particular being one of the present Maherrin Indians Satt with the Tuscarooroes at his Tryall and was among them when Mr Lawson the Surveyr Genl was killed by them So that these Maherrins were not originally of this Country but Enemies to the English every where behaving themselves Turbulently and never lookt on as true men or friends to the English nor ever paid due acknowledgement to this Government Some years agoe Coll Maule the Surveyr Genl obtained an Order to Survey the Lands at old Maherrin Towne which was accordingly done and Pattented afterwards since that they have paid Tribute to this Governmt and have been allowed by the Governmt to remain on those Lands but since that a great sickness coming among them swept off the most of them and those that remained moved off those Lands at Maherrin Towne and Sundry of them have lately seated and Encroached on your Petitioners Lands some miles higher up the River, destroyed their Timber & Stocks and hindering them from Improving their Lands they being unwilling themselves forcibly to remove the sd Indians least some disorders might arise thereon; praying an order to the Provost Marshall That if the sd Indians do not remove off in some convenient time they may be compelled thereto &c

Whereupon by the consent of both parties It is ordered in Council That the Surveyr Genl or his Deputy do lay out unto the said Indians a certain parcell of Land lying between Maherrin River and Blackwater River Running three miles up Blackwater River and then a Straight Line to such a part of Maherrin River as shall be Two miles from the mouth thoreof and if the same line shall leave out the settlement of Capt Roger a Maherrin Indian that then the Surveyr Genl do lay out a Tract of 150 acres the most convenient to his Dwelling Which Land when Surveyed the surveyr is to make return thereof into the Sectys Office that Grants may pass for the same to the said Indians It is further Ordered by this Board that the sd Indians shall Quietly hold the sd Lands

——————– page 645 ——————– without any molestation or disturbance of any Persons claming the same so as the same Persons Right or pretentions to the sd Lands be Reserved into them whereby they or those claiming under them shall have the preferrence of taking up the same when the said Indians shall desart or remove therefrom

(I have to marvel at the political shenanigans concerning the history mentioned above…”were formerly called Susquahannahs and Lived between Mary Land and Pensilvania and committing several Barbarous Massacrees and Outrages there Killing, as tis reported all the English there settled excepting Two Families, they then drew off and fled up to the head of Potomack and there built them a fort being pursued by the Mary Land and Verginia Forces under the Comand of One Major Trueman who beseiged the fort Eight months but at last in the night broke out thro the main Guard and drew off round the heads of several Rivers and passing them high up came into this country and settled at old Sapponie Town upon Maherrin River”…… all of that actually happened in 1676 during Bacon’s Rebellion!  That is fifty years before the above account in 1726.)

Minutes of the North Carolina Governor’s Council
North Carolina. Council
April 03, 1725 – April 07, 1725
Volume 02, Pages 562-565

North Carolina—ss.
At a council held at the Council Chamber in Edenton the 3d day of April Anno
Dom 1725

The Honoble George Burrington Esqr Govr &c
Will Reed
J Lovick
E Moseley
R Sanderson
Thos Pollock
Thos Harvey
Ar Goffe
Wm Maule

Read the Petition of John Gray Shewing that William Gray in April 1722
obtained a patent for 250 Acres of Land in Bert. prect which is not seated as
Law directs therefore prays a Lapse pat &c

Ordered that a patent Issue as prayed for


Heretofore I had hoped to limit my research of Foltera Fort to the Virginia and newly competing North Carolina Indian traders… below accounts by necessity brings in South Carolina traders:


Bertie Deed A-19 James Anderson of Bath Co. to Capt John Gray 3 Mch 1721/2 400 ac on north side Morattock River in Occoneeche Neck part of 640 ac surv for Coll Wm. Maule for William Braswell, then sold to Matthew Capps & by Capps to Anderson adj William Boon. John Nellson. Wit. Patrick Maule, Maur Moore.



Abstract of North Carolina wills compiled from original and recorded wills …

By John Bryan Grimes, North Carolina. Secretary of State

Maule, Patrick. Bath County.

April 19, 1736. Beaufort Precinct. Wife: Elizabeth (five negroes “to be delivered after the tar kilns are off and the crop finished”; also plantation at Rumney Marsh with a dwelling house to be built “twenty foot long and sixteen foot wide”). Son: John (five negroes, lands at Smiths Point and Blunts Creek and lot in Bath town). Daughters: Sarah (five negroes and land at Tranters Creek), Barbara (four negroes and the land on Matchapungo Swamp), Mary (four negroes and lands on north dividing and Jacks Creeks). Guardians for children: John and William Gray. Executors: John and William Gray, John Caldom and Robert Boyd. Witnesses: Bart. Fleming, Elizabeth Montgomery, Nehemiah Monk. Clerk of the Court: Jno. Collison. Letters issued June, 1736. Probate not dated.

The Pamlico River begins at the Beaufort County line at the junction of the Tar River and Tranters Creek, west of Washington. Pamlico was the name of an Indian tribe who once lived in the area. The river, first explored by Europeans in 1584, extends for 33 miles from Washington to the sound. The Pamlico Sound is 80 miles long and 15 to 30 miles wide. It covers more than 1,800 square miles and has a maximum depth of 21 feet. The sound drains water through the Ocracoke and Oregon inlets from the Albemarle Sound and the Neuse and Pamlico rivers to the Atlantic Ocean.

Maule, William. Bertie Precinct

February 25, 1726. March 30, 1726. Wife: Penelope (plantations called Scotts Hall and Mount Galland). Daughter: Penelope Maule (“all the rest and residue of my Estate”). Brother and Executor: Patrick Maule. Witnesses: Robert Forster, John Nairn, Jams Eagles (?). Impression of head and Latin inscription on seal. Proven before Richard EVERARD.

Some colonial history of Beaufort County, North Carolina

By Francis Hodges Cooper 1916


Dr. Patrick Maule was another of the first vestrymen of St. Thomas Church. “Mr. Maule, my Deputy, is a man of learning, and has a plentiful fortune,” says Edmond Porter, Esquire, judge of the admiralty court.53 He had been deputy surveyor, and was one of the trustees appointed for the Bath Library in 1715. He was also justice of the peace for Beaufort precinct, and lived at Maule’s Point, below Bath, which still holds his name. He married Mary, daughter of John Porter, senior.54

“C. R., Ill, 514.


Page 173

May 1, 1716 – “William GRAY, late of Co. of Bath within this Province, but now of Province of South Carolinaby Thomas HARDING, his attorney, to Hon. Charles EDEN, Esq. – 20 pounds – 640 acres North side Pamtico river whereon James CROSS formerly lived beginning gut that parts said land from land late of Henry FLEETWOOD’s as by patent or Deed of Grant dated March 23, 1715/16. Wit: Waller JONES, Jno. DRINKWATER

Page 193

July 24, 1716 – Thomas HARDING, Bath Town, to Maurice MOORE, late of South Carolina,

Gent. – 50 shillings – “one compleat half lot in Bath Town” beginning front street

and running up through the middle of said lot, lying between one other lot

belonging to Thos. HARDING on the south, and a lot to north lately bought by Col.

Edward MOSELY of Wm. SIDLEY.

Wit:  Jno. PORTER, Je’re. VAILL

Acknowledged July 23 (?) 1716

In 1716, Col. Maurice Moore, and his brother Col. James Moore, with the aid of interpreter, Charity Haig “Smallpox Conjurer” negotiated a Treaty in Old Tugaloo Town when a group of Creek ambassadors arrived.  This treaty was negotiated with the Cherokee, Wateree, & Catabawa Indians and it resulted in agreement to build a Fort at the Congaree, intended to help remedy the kind of hostilities encountered in the Yamassee War, and to build trading posts at Savannah Town, and Congarees.  Charity Haig was valued as an able interpreter, and must have enjoyed some head status as a healer.

South Carolina: a history By Walter B. Edgar    1998, Pub. in Columbia, SC, by the Univ. Of South Carolina Press

page 135

“At the end of the seventeenth century South Carolina exported 64,000 deerskins. Just seven years later the figure had risen to more than 121,000. Between 1699 and 1715 a yearly average of 54,000 skins were shipped from Charleston. It was no wonder that Nairne would write: this Province owed for a long time its Subsistence to the Indian Trade, which is now the Main Branch of Traffick.”18″ …Later South Carolina’s traders would face competition from Georgia and Virginia traders, but they still managed to garner the lion’s share of the southeastern deerskin trade. In 1750 the number of skins leaving Charleston totaled 150,000 and the trade accounted for 20 percent of the colony’s exports.19”

page 136

“The proprietors regularly condemned the trade [indian slaves], but their officials were helpless to stop it. Some did not even try. Maurice Mathews, one of the leading figures in the trade, was the colony’s surveyor general. In 1685 the proprietors removed him from office besause he trafficked in Indian Slaves. The other major Indian slave traders were Arthur Middleton and James Moore, both members of the council and later governor. Moore’s political foes, always looking for something to damage his reputation, falsely accused him of launching an invasion of Florida solely for the purpose of gathering slaves. England and Spain were at war, and the expedition against St. Augustine was sound strategy. Besides, when it came to Indian slavery, there were lots of dirty hands. Among the possessions of Thomas Nairne’s widow were five Indian slaves.23

Just as nefarious in the eyes of many, especially English imperial officials, was the trade with pirates. Colonists who had emigrated from the West Indies were used to dealing with them. For the first twenty-five years of the colony’s existence, the freebooters were welcomed in Charleston. They spent prodigally while ashore, and their binges put much-needed hard currency into circulation. Also, most South Carolinians were eager to purchase the pirate’s booty at less than market prices. Proprietary officials winked at the enterprise because the pirates were good for the colony’s economy.24”

page 607. Footnote30 Ver Steeg, Origins of a Southern Mosaic, 122-29. Linder, River in Time,” 75.

“As South Carolina’s naval stores industry declined, that in North Carolina expanded as South Carolinians, such as Maurice and Roger Moore (sons of the first Governor James Moore and brother of the second Governor James Moore), moved into the Cape Fear area. Land was cheaper in North Carolina and yellow pine plentiful. By the late colonial period nearly 60 percent of the naval stores produced in North America came from North Carolina, Powell, North Carolina, 81-84, 135-36.

Did James Anderson “of Bath” cut a deal with these folks and relocate to Tarboro?
more later…
3 letters of Thomas Pollock, 2 mention Weecacanne (Wekocanan)… the trading path (village?) at/near Weldon?

Colonial and State Records of North Carolina

Letter from Thomas Pollock to [James Moore]

Pollock, Thomas, 1654-1722

February 24, 1713

Volume 02, Pages 21-22

[From Pollock’s Letter Book.]
February 24th 171⅔.

Hond Sir

Your’s from Reading’s Fort received, and am very glad your men were all so well and hearty after such a bad spell of weather, and am still doubtful, the weather and ways have been so bad since, and so much difficulty of getting provision from Fort Barnwell, that you could do little of action yet.

I have account of 2200 or 2300 bushels of corn sent round, some small matter more to be sent round, of the public, but doubting it will not be sufficient have laid and embargo on all vessels 2000 bushels of corn moor is raised and 100 barrels pork, which I hope will go near to last until some of their Forts are taken. Tom Blount coming here this day with a letter brought by four of his Indians from Albany, a copy whereof have sent you; so hope there is no great danger of the seneca Idians, coming to help the Enemy. The Indians at weekacanne, I understand, are join? of Tom Blount, and he pretends that he will not help nor join any of the other Indians, who he says are still in their forts. I have great reason to believe he is real, and hope we shall find him so. Our latest news from Verginia gives us account of the daily expectation they have of Brigadier Nicholson, under the title of Visitor General of all Her Majesty’s Plantations on the continent of America. From thence, it is reported, he is to go South Carolina. The South Carolina packetboat hath stayed here longer than I expected or intended, by reason of the badness of the weather and contrary winds, from Little River, she bring you ten barrels of beef and two barrels of salt for the Army. I hope it will not be long before you have more meat round, and have ordered Commissary Green to suppy what he can, wherever to be had. Likewise have ordered what provisions is in Captain Royals’ Sloop to be and sent to you; I can assure you I shall do what lies in my power for the supply of your forces. Pray let us hear from you by all oppertinies, for your good success is Earnestly desired by

Hond Sir
Your most obedient humble servant


This letter was sent to the Fork of Neuse by Mr Aquilla Pauli, Master of the South Carolina, who sailed from here Feb. 27th 171⅔.

Letter from Thomas Pollock to Charles Eden

Pollock, Thomas, 1654-1722

May 03, 1718

Volume 02, Pages 304-306

[From Pollock’s Letter Book.]
May 3d 1718

Hond Sir

I had the favor of your kind letter of April the 9th with the writing enclosed. and to make what discovery I could if their was any evil design of the Tuscaroras or Senecas against us, I sent out Mr Charlton to Blount’s town, on another pretense, to make what discovery he could, who returned last week, and says he could not find nor perceive that these Indian had any evil design against the government: and that Blount was very kind, and earnest to send out twelve or thirteen of his men against the Enemy Indians at Neuse. And when Charlton told him that he had not heard any thing yet that the corn was carried to Neuse, or landed there, but Blount told him it was no matter, he would send out his men to Pemptico, and that they might stay hunting about Pamptico, until your Honor had account that the corn was landed at Neuse. Only Blount desired one favor of your Honor: that if his people should have the good fortune to catch or kill these enemy Indians, yet there could not be a slave a head to each of them, but that several of his men who might be there, and as forward and as ready as the other to catch or kill them, yet might not catch any of them, might yet be allowed some gratuity for their trouble, as a blanket or some such matter. This is what account I have had from Charlton.And as for the Senecas’ rudeness at Wekocanaan: it is either natural to them to be so, or else they have a mind to drive away the people from their settlements their it lying in their way to Blounts town; Also I have included in the form of the writ, to inquire wither Col Wilkison hath any heirs in this Government, which being for the same land, I believe may be included in the same writ, and can be no prejudice to any person, but may obviate some pretensions that may afterwards arise. All which I leave to your Honor’s more mature consideration to do therein as you shall see most convenient; only entreat the favor of your answer by the first opportunity. For I would willingly have this matter brought to an end; and I doubt not by the first letter to some of them from Col Gale there will be some other amusements of new Law books, gudges, or Attorney General’s opinions et cet.

My son Thomas recieves with his utmost and real acknowledgement your Honor’s favor to him, but pretends himself as yet uncapable of acting in these posts; wherefore he humbly begs your excuse at present. But I am in great hopes he will endeavor to improve himself, and make himself capable of being serviceable to your Honor and the country in some short time.

Having no news here of any moment; only there is a report that some of the pirates have come in and submitted themselves to the government in Verginia, and brought in considerable quantities of money with them. Your news-books, which I recieved by Captn Lovick, after perusal shall return them. Your Honor’s excuse for this long scrawl is humbly begged by him who most sincerely is

Hond sir
Your most obedient
Humble Servant



Letter from Thomas Pollock to [Robert Hunter]

Pollock, Thomas, 1654-1722

March 06, 1713

Volume 02, Pages 23-25

[From Pollock’s Letter Book.]
North Carolina March 6th 171⅔.

May it please your Excellency.

This accompanies a letter from me and the Council; for having seen a letter from you to governor Hyde date May 12th 1712, wherein you intimate that if their be occasion of the interposition of the five Nations as towards making peace with the Tuscarora Indians, that there will be occasion of money sent from this government to make presents to the Indians and to bear the charges of the person or persons the Indians will want to accompany them to Carolina; to which I doubt not governor Hyde hath fully answered, laying down the poverty and inability of the country to raise any considerable sum, our own divisions and this Indian war having much impoverished the country; and also to fly to the Indians and hire them to be mediators of a peace, unless extreame necessity forces, would be derogatory to Her Majesty’s honor, and might encourage the five nations to set Indians against Her Majesty’s subjects, for their own advantage. Howsoever, if extremity reduces us to such a necessity, which I pray God may not be, we must fly to your Excellency.

also I understand, by a letter from Mr Secretary Clarke to our late Governor Hyde, dated the 21st of August last, that Col Schuyler should report from the five nations, that some of their Indians, who were a hunting toward Carolina, were taken and some hanged, which is certainly a false report, our people having never taken, killed, or hanged any of the five nations that ever I heard of. And to convince them of contrary, Col. James Moore, in his coming here from South Carolina, met with a party of Tuscaroras Indians killed 8 of them, and took one prisoner who was one of the five nations; which as soon as I understand, I purchased the said Indian, named Anethae, and having no other way to send him to his own country but by this vessel, would entreat the favor of your Excellency to get him conveyed safe to his own Country, that they may see an know the falsity of these reports.

As to the making clear to the five nations that the Tuscaroras were the first causes of the war, I doubt not but Governor Hyde hath given you a full account of their taking Baron Graffenried a swiss nobleman, who came here to settle a colony of switzers and Palatines; and one Mr Lawson, our General Surveyor Lawson, they killed after a barbarous manner, and in five or six days after massacred and took about 130 or 140 of our people, and all without any cause that we know of, or any complaint made unto the government and after they had made a sort of sham peace with Col Barnwell, they in a very few days boke it, and have continued hostilities ever since, until the latter end of November last; at which time some of the great men from six of their Fort came in, with whom we came to some preliminary articles of agreement, amongst which one was, that they would cut off all the Core and Coteching Indians and all others that had any hand in the massacre of the English, betwixt then and the first of January then next ensuing; and if they could not accomplish it by that time, they oblidged themselves to bring in six hostages from each of the aforesaid Forts. Presently after this agreement we heard of Col Moore and the South Carolina forces arrival at the Neuse River, and had him in amongst us and kept him and his forces, being upward of nine hundred men, from the beginning of December until the Twentieth of January to see if the Tuscaroras would keep their agreement, which they did not. So Col Moore, with the South Carolina forces and some of our went out against them, and lie now against one of their strongest Forts. wherein, (by what Intelligence we can have) there is not less than three or four hundred men. If your Excellency had the oppertunity of sending the cowhorn mortar that Governor Craven writ for they would now have been of great use.

While I was writing this, one Tom Blount, the chief man of one of the Tuscaroroe Forts which is next to us, who hath pretended all along that he was not concerned with the other Tuscaroroes against the English, and with whom we have had no hostility all this time, came in to me with letters from your Commissioners for Indian affairs from albany (a copy whereof have herewith sent your Excellency) which, he says, four of his Indians brought him from thence. Notwithstanding which letter I have lately had information that several of the Five Nations are now among the Tuscaroroes; which wants yet confirmation I hope your Excellency will take what care you can to hinder the five Nations from joining or assisting our Enemies with armes or ammunition.

The honor of your Excellency’s answer by the first oppertunity here, or by the way of the Governor of Verginia, will highly oblidge

Your Excellency’s &c

Sent out by Mr Sears, Merchant, of a New York sloop here, who carried likewise the Seneca Indian.

Thomas Pollock evidently thought highly enough of the Weecacanna land that he “acquired”  it in 1720…  (he died with 50,000 acres that he left to his sons).

pollock property


Here is a 1927 USGS map detailing the (now submerged) island of the Occoneechee tribe which was west of this area near Clarksville.  I’ve never ran across an explanation of why the area near Weldon came to be named the same as this tribe which was pretty much wiped out in 1676?

Written by anderson1951

July 14, 2010 at 11:33 pm

12 Responses

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  1. I just came across your site on Foltera Fort. I’m impressed. I am also impressed that you were able to transcribe the microfilm copy between Joseph Calvert and Jno. Gray.
    My 5th great-grandfather was Joseph Calvert. Over the years the name changed to Colbert. I also wrote the article in the NC Genealogical Society Journal re:
    James Logan Colbert.
    Keep up the good work.


    Richard A. Colbert

    December 18, 2010 at 5:22 pm

    • Glad you commented… your article prompted me to dig for the James Anderson you mentioned. (I think I may have a connection to him). Check my Pages for the 2 John Andersons of the area… one is the Indian Trader you referenced from Virginia. Kudos to your article, I still refer to it. Don’t be a stranger.



      December 18, 2010 at 6:04 pm

  2. My father was Chickasaw and my mother was Cherokee. Our family goes back 9 or 10 generations of Colberts.
    This is very interesting because I thought that James Logan Colbert came from Horn Lake, Miss. but that there was a Carolina connection… since he had to come over from Scotland on a ship to some port – Savannah. There is a child named Savannah so it makes perfect sense… Thanks for the information. CMO


    Candace (Colbert) Odom

    January 12, 2011 at 11:37 pm

  3. Marc,
    I’m not sure how far you’ve gone on researching your Anderson family tree, but I may have something for you.

    Of course, it may turn out not to be part of your family tree. On the other hand, it might.

    I am still researching this possibility, but I believe my 7th GG was Christopher Calvert of Accomack Co, VA. He was transported to Accomack in 1636 by William Bibby and died in Accomack in 1682. Christopher made his living as a tobacco planter and owned several parcels of land in Accomack. One parcel was located on Onancock Creek which later became the town of Onancock. William Anderson was one of the first persons to buy a lot at the Onancock site. He also bought land that he gave to his new son-in-law, the Reverend Francis Makemie, who established the first Presbyterian Church in America. Christopher Calvert sold Francis Makemie the land where the first Presbyterian Church in America was built.

    The lot that William Anderson bought for Francis Makemie was later handed down to Makemie’s daughters Elizabeth and Ann. When Elizabeth died, her sister Ann and her husband George Holden inherited the land in 1708.

    Colbert/Calvert Anderson lived with his family in the early 1700’s in Goochand Co., Va and later in Frederick Co, VA.. Colbert Anderson, Jr. moved to South Carolina after his father died.

    The reason I believe Christopher Calvert is my ancestor is because the descendants of William Bibby and John Pannell/Pinnell of Accomack Co. VA live in Franklin Co., NC where my family has lived since 1768, John Pannell was my 9th GG.

    Richard A. Colbert


    Richard A. Colbert

    May 13, 2012 at 9:29 am

  4. Marc,
    I forgot to mention my Colvard line.Several years ago I took a DNA test and it turns out I am related to families with the surnames Calvert/Colbert/Colvard.

    This includes the Calvert/Colvard family of Goochland/Henrico/Hanover/Louisa counties, VA.

    In this line William Calvert/Colvard and his wife Temperance had several children including William, John Butterworth, Ben, and Thomas. When William died, Temperance was forced to give up her children temporarily to Dale Parish Wardens where they were treated as orphans.

    Their son William was born ca. 1737 and died before 1800. He married Mercy Holland, daughter of Capt. Michael and Judith Holland.

    In 1771 in Lousia County, VA, Mr. Pouncy Anderson testified in court that the deceased Michael Holland owed his youngest daughter Mrs. Calvert the Sum of L347.18.7 plus interest.


    Richard A. Colbert

    May 13, 2012 at 10:01 am

    • Hi Richard,
      I’m still stuck at the Edgecombe Co level. I have theories but the proof is hard to drum up. I’ve looked at the Southside Andersons and don’t see any definite leads with my group… some of the other Anderson lines have some possibilities… still turning over clues. Good luck on your Colberts.



      May 13, 2012 at 3:53 pm

  5. As a daughter of a descendant of the James Logan Colbert clan, I would like to connect with other people of this family lineage. Please contact me at thanks so much.


    Candace Mae (Colbert) odom

    May 15, 2012 at 9:17 am

    • I’ve tried to reply to Candace for over a year and she doesn’t reply. The last time I contacted her, she said her brother was taking a DNA test to prove she was related to James Colbert. Since then, she’s refused to reply to my emails. Richard A. Colbert


      Richard A. Colbert

      March 23, 2013 at 4:45 pm

      • Hi, I am still here at the computer. My husband has a filter on our computer and most of my emails I can’t receive. My brother took the test but I have not received any results. I talked to Marty and he did not receive any info from the DNA site. We are related to James Logan Colbert who was married to three Chickasaw daughters of the Chief of the Chickasaw Indians. My father was Dean Martin Colbert from Oklahoma Territory and his father was Tolbert Ray Colbert. They are from the Levi Colbert descendancy. The Colberts were from a long line that goes back twelve generations… They owned a large cotton plantation and had many slaves. This was a time before the cotton gin. They also owned the Colbert Ferry which crossed the Red River from Oklahoma to Texas. Candace Mae Colbert-Odom


        Candace Mae Odom

        August 29, 2016 at 12:43 pm

  6. Hi there!
    How long have you been waiting on y-DNA results? Which test did your brother take? Family Tree? 23 and Me. I’ve also taken autosomal test from Family Tree DNA called Family Finders. On list of distant cousins is a number of families that belong to Choctaw and Creek bands. You mentioned that your family goes back 12 generations. Mine doesn’t go back that far. I’ve only been able to go back to my 7th Great-grandfather. Can you send me your family tree lineage?



    Richard Colbert

    August 29, 2016 at 5:36 pm

  7. Hello again Candace.
    I checked my Family Tree DNA’s Family Finders (autosomal). It shows that I am related to a Rebecca Hammock Odom. Don’t know if that’s your family or not. Where did your Colbert family originate? If your brother matches my y-DNA, we’re definitely related.


    Richard Colbert

    August 29, 2016 at 5:59 pm

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